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Tobias ten Brink China's Capitalism

Since 1978, the end of the Mao era, economic growth in China has outperformed every previous economic expansion in modern history. While the largest Western economies continue to struggle with the effects of the deepest recession since World War II, the People's Republic of China still enjoys growth rates that are massive in comparison. In the country's smog-choked cities, a chaotic climate of buying and selling prevails. Tireless expansion and inventiveness join forces with an attitude of national euphoria in which anything seems possible. No longer merely the «workshop of the world,» China is poised to become a global engine for innovation. In China's Capitalism , Tobias ten Brink considers the history of the socioeconomic order that has emerged in the People's Republic. With empirical evidence and a theoretical foundation based in comparative and international political economy, ten Brink analyzes the main characteristics of China's socioeconomic system over time, identifies the key dynamics shaping this system's structure, and discusses current trends in further capitalist development. He argues that hegemonic state-business alliances mostly at the local level, relative homogeneity of party-state elites, the maintenance of a low-wage regime, and unanticipated coincidences between domestic and global processes are the driving forces behind China's rise. He also surveys the limits to the state's influence over economic and social developments such as industrial overcapacity and social conflict. Ten Brink's framework reveals how combinations of three heterogeneous actors—party-state institutions, firms, and workers—led to China's distinctive form of capitalism. Presenting a coherent and historically nuanced portrait, China's Capitalism is essential reading for anyone interested in the socioeconomic order of the People's Republic and the significant challenges facing its continuing development.

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Группа авторов Salt and Light, Volume 3

In this centennial year of China's 1911 Revolution, Volume 3 in the Salt and Light series includes the life stories of influential Chinese who played a political or military role in the new Republic that emerged. Recovering this precious legacy of faith in action shows the deep roots of the revival of Christian faith in China today.

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Qingfeng Zhang Environmentally Sustainable Development in the People's Republic of China

The rapid pace of growth, the sectoral structure of the economy, the sources of energy used, and increased urbanization are four large-scale drivers behind the complex environmental agenda of the People's Republic of China (PRC). To improve the quality of the ambient environment, the recently released Macro Strategic Research Report on the PRC's Environment recognized the need for changing the momentum of the four driving forces, and included visions throughout 2050 for long-term environmentally sustainable development. Revisiting these visions for the future, this paper examines the key elements that the government needs to keep in mind in its efforts toward environmentally sustainable development, and articulates the role that the Asian Development Bank can play in contributing to the government's environmental agenda in the next decade.

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Sara J. Scherr Buyer, Regulator, and Enabler: The Government's Role in Ecosystem Services Markets

This paper was originally produced for the «International Conference on Payments for Environmental Services,» held in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in China on 6-7 September 2009, and jointly hosted by the People's Republic of China's National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the government of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). It is part of the full volume of conference proceedings published by ADB in December 2010, entitled «Payments for Ecological Services and Eco-Compensation: Practices and Innovations in the People's Republic of China».

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Hongliang Yang Carbon Efficiency, Carbon Reduction Potential, and Economic Development in the People's Republic of China

"Carbon intensity" is the traditional measure of an economy's carbon performance. However, it is incapable of capturing the multidimensional features of an economy's carbon performance, particularly when increased emissions have causes other than poor emitting technology, such as changes in the energy mix or the substitution of energy for labor. Hence, it can sometimes be a poor yardstick for comparing countries with different natural resources or factors of production. Introducing the concept of «carbon efficiency,» based on Data Envelopment Analysis, this study calculates the carbon performance in 2005 of 29 regions in the People's Republic of China with results different from what the carbon intensity indicator would have suggested: Better carbon performance is associated with higher levels of economic development and greater resource endowments.

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Lijin Zhong Water–Energy Nexus in the People's Republic of China and Emerging Issues

Water and energy are both valuable resources and indispensable for human society and economic development. By nature, water and energy are interlinked. Water plays a critical role in the generation of electricity for cooling of thermal power plants and in hydropower, as well as in the production of fossil fuels such as coal; energy is required to treat, distribute, and for wastewater treatment. Choices made in either of the sectors may have unintended and often negative implications on the other sector. This report analyzes the trade-off between the two sectors in the context of the People's republic of China and proposes recommendations to ensure that the choices made are sustainable in the long run.

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David H. Shinn China and Africa

The People's Republic of China once limited its involvement in African affairs to building an occasional railroad or port, supporting African liberation movements, and loudly proclaiming socialist solidarity with the downtrodden of the continent. Now Chinese diplomats and Chinese companies, both state-owned and private, along with an influx of Chinese workers, have spread throughout Africa. This shift is one of the most important geopolitical phenomena of our time. China and Africa: A Century of Engagement presents a comprehensive view of the relationship between this powerful Asian nation and the countries of Africa. This book, the first of its kind to be published since the 1970s, examines all facets of China's relationship with each of the fifty-four African nations. It reviews the history of China's relations with the continent, looking back past the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949. It looks at a broad range of areas that define this relationship—politics, trade, investment, foreign aid, military, security, and culture—providing a significant historical backdrop for each. David H. Shinn and Joshua Eisenman's study combines careful observation, meticulous data analysis, and detailed understanding gained through diplomatic experience and extensive travel in China and Africa. China and Africa demonstrates that while China's connection to Africa is different from that of Western nations, it is no less complex. Africans and Chinese are still developing their perceptions of each other, and these changing views have both positive and negative dimensions.

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Xiaoguang Liu China's Rural Labor Migration And Its Economic Development

The continuous migration of rural labor to cities has changed the fundamental characteristics of China's labor market, profoundly affected the country's investments, savings, technological progress and economic cycle fluctuation, and more importantly, the rapid development of non-agricultural industries. Though the significant changes in China's labor market has played a vital role in the country's economic growth, it has not been duly valued and studied. This book aims to fill the gap by studying the role of rural labor in China's economic development. The book systematically presents the three most important characteristics of China's economic development and summarizes them as 'the riddle of China's rising return on capital', 'the riddle of China's rising rate of saving', and 'the riddle of 'Okun's law' not applicable to China'. It empirically and theoretically analyses the 'three riddles' from the perspective of the migration of rural labor. It also proposes macro-policies and developmental strategies to address the 'three riddles'. Contents: IntroductionOverview of the Transfer of Agricultural LaborThe Enigma of the Transfer of Agricultural Labor and the Rising Return on CapitalRiddle of the Transfer of Agricultural Labor and the Rise of the Rate of Household Saving in ChinaThe Transfer of Agricultural Labor and the Okun Relationship in ChinaThe Policy Implications of the Transfer of Agricultural Labor Readership: Academics, policymakers, undergraduate and graduate students interested in China's rural labor migration and China's economic development.China's Rural Labor Migration;Economic Development;Return on Capital;Savings Rate;Equilibrium Analysis00

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James Chieh Hsiung South China Sea Disputes And The Us-china Contest, The: International Law And Geopolitics

This book focuses on a region that, next to the Middle East, has become a dragnet of international conflicts in the world. The South China Sea (SCS) region, furthermore, is the subject over which a rumored war may break out between the United States, the extant superpower, and China, an emergent superpower – should the current power transition end up in a Thucydides Trap. The volatility of the situation has gone beyond the long simmering tensions due to overlapping claims by six contending Asian neighbors, to culminate in a nascent crisis surrounding the US-China contest.The book's broad sweep provides a careful examination of two tangles: (i) a legal tangle bedeviling China's relations with other competing claimant nations, and (ii) a geopolitical tangle at the heart of the US-China contest, arising from America's instinctual response to the China-threat scare trumpeted by neorealist analysts and media gurus as well. The book reviews what general international law has to say on 'historic waters', which is the basis of China's claim, in its disputes with its contending neighbors. It also examines the background of the China-threat scare, to see if it has any merit, in light of both the shifts in the running China debate and the evidence of China's might and intentions.The book's final part explores a possible way out of the two tangles, in the interest of arriving at a reconciliation of the tensions and conflicts associated with the SCS, so that the United States and China can meet each other across the divide for the sake of a new era of public order, presumably under a condominium they can build together.

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Lovell Julia Maoism. A Global History

The first global history of Maosim that explores Maos' life, ideas, influence and legacy as a power that shaped the world well beyond the borders of China. 'A landmark work giving a global panorama of Mao's ideology filled with historic events and enlivened by striking characters' Jonathan Fenby, author of The Penguin History of China Since the 1980s, China seems to have abandoned the utopian turmoil of Mao's revolution in favour of authoritarian capitalism. But Mao and his ideas remain central to the People's Republic. With disagreements between China and the West on the rise, the need to understand the political legacy of Mao is urgent and growing. A crucial motor of the Cold War: Maoism shaped the course of the Vietnam War and brought to power the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia; it aided anti-colonial resistance movements in Africa; it inspired terrorism in Germany and Italy, and wars and insurgencies in Peru, India and Nepal, some of which are still with us today. Starting with the birth of Mao's revolution in northwest China in the 1930s and concluding with its violent afterlives in South Asia and resurgence in the People's Republic today, Julia Lovell re-evaluates Maoism as both a Chinese and an international force, linking its evolution in China with its global legacy. 'Wonderful' Andrew Marr, New Statesman

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Xuechun Zhang Rural Finance in Poverty-Stricken Areas in the People's Republic of China

Local financial institutions represent the best choices in the financial system for small and medium-sized enterprises and farming households. Government agencies in the People's Republic of China (PRC) have proposed policies that would relax market entry criteria and allow the creation of diversified rural financial institutions. These measures will help improve PRC's financial market structure, promote better rural financial services, enable financing of labor-intensive economic activities, and promote socioeconomic development. This publication offers an overview of rural finance in the PRC, examines current financial policy and models, and offers recommendations for future reform measures.

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Chen Zemin The Church in China in the 20th Century

While the Peoples Republic of China is officially an atheist country, Christianity continues to experience rapid growth on the Chinese mainland. Many observers see the country as on the way to becoming «the world's most Christian nation.» Yet there is widespread ignorance in the English speaking world about how the Chinese Christian community fared during the decades prior to China's «opening up to the West» in the aftermath of the historic visit of Richard Nixon to Beijing in 1972. This collection of essays, the first of them published in 1939, provides an invaluable record of developments in mainland Chinese Christianity during that period and for the remaining decades of the twentieth century. The fact that the essays were all authored by a key participant in the Protestant churches in China provides significant added value. Professor Chen discusses a wide range of important topics: various stages of rural and urban development, the «Three Self» principles for structuring officially sanctioned worshiping communities, Bishop K.H. Ting's advocacy of a genuinely indigenous Chinese theology, patterns of international cooperation, worship, seminary education, and much more. These essays make a unique and significant contribution to the Western understanding of Asian religious life in the twentieth century.

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The Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2005

"The Human Rights Record of the United States in 2005" by The Information Office of the State Council of the People's Republic of China. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

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Donovan C. Chau Exploiting Africa

The purpose of this book is to provide an historical examination of China’s activities in Africa, an important yet overlooked aspect of the broader subject of China in Africa today. There is a tendency of observers of China in Africa to always look forward; however, there is a need to look backward. Modern China’s historical presence in Africa must be scrutinized in order to understand the context of its current and future actions on the continent.As the book will illustrate, China in the past meddled in the affairs of Africa, in places like Algeria, Ghana, and Tanzania. It did so for self-interest, for the benefit of the Communist Party of China, specifically its leaders’ strategic objective, which was to demonstrate influence in the world, that is, power in international politics. Though its material resources were scant in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s, China nevertheless used them, in addition to devoting time and attention to Africa. It was a Meddling Dragon.China was not required to devote time, attention, and resources to Africa. But it did, in Algeria, Ghana, and Tanzania, especially. China skillfully used its limited diplomatic, intelligence, and economic means to gain traction on the continent. It sought influence through a combination of means – through shaping perceptions, developing personal relationships, and providing tangible assistance.There was a rhyme and reason to China’s early approach to the continent. And that rhyme and reason remains much the same today. Viewed in the broader historical and strategic contexts, China’s current presence in Africa demonstrates continuity with the past rather than a renewed focus. This book contributes vitally to the discourse on Sino-African history and adds to the contemporary strategic understanding and debate about China in Africa.The Chinese arrived on the African continent without fanfare, yet maintained an active and influential presence, a presence which ultimately was more pragmatic than revolutionary. Though often couched in ideological rhetoric, China’s behavior in Africa in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s demonstrated goals and actions of an aspiring great power in the world. Contemporary China receives much more attention in Africa, as it does everywhere else around the world. Nevertheless, it is crucial to understand the nature and character of China’s historical actions on the African continent in order to properly grasp its future policies. Rather than merely looking forward, one must look backward to comprehend the true nature of China in Africa.

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